Saturday, 12 March 2016

Risk factors associated with ectopic pregnancy>>>>

>>>>>Ectopic pregnancy occurs when the fertilized egg develops outside the womb in the Fallopian tube, This can be life-threatening as it may result to death if it is not diagnose and treated early. It usually occur during the first week of pregnancy.
 Ectopic pregnancy is the most common cause of death during the first trimester and may be high among those using assisted reproductive technology. In every pregnant woman that is experiencing lower abdominal pains or vaginal bleeding, ectopic pregnancy should be suspected and proper tested conducted through human chronic gonadotropin (hCG) or ultrasound

The causes of ectopic pregnancy may be unknown but there are number of risk factors such as Pelvic Inflammatory disease (PID), smoking, sexual transmitted diseases and intrauterine surgery. Some studies suggest that age may also be a risk factor

 Smoking>>>>According to Edinburgh scientists, chemicals in cigarette smoke can cause a reaction which leads to ectopic pregnancy. The research which was published in the American Journal of Pathology, stated that Cotinine triggered a reaction which increased a protein in the Fallopian tubes.They said the protein, called PROKR1, raised the risk of an egg implanting outside the womb. They believe that too much of the protein prevents the muscles in the walls of the Fallopian tubes from contracting, which in turn hinders the transfer of the egg to the womb.

Sexual transmitted disease>>>Such as chlamydia infection, caused by bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis can lead to ectopic pregnancy.When left untreated, the condition spreads to the upper genital tract in women causing pelvic inflammatory disease which has ectopic pregnancy as one of it's complications. A research also shows that chlamydial infection linked to ectopic pregnancy causes much more subtle changes in the fallopian tube, without evidence of severe scarring.

Assisted Reproductive Technology>>>  The use of ART increases the rate of ectopic pregnancies. Intra vitro fertilisation (IVF) is associated with an ectopic pregnancy risk of 2–5% and it may be higher than this where there is tubal disease. Indeed the first IVF pregnancy, before the first IVF live birth, was a tubal ectopic pregnancy.

Pelvic Inflammatory disease (PID)>>> PID can cause scarring inside the reproductive organs,  making it more difficult for eggs to pass through. This can sometimes lead to severe and life-threatening internal bleeding leading to serious complications, which include ectopic pregnancy.